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Benefits and tax growth push Singapore up in global ranking of locations with highest expat packages

  • Singapore rose six places to 16th position in global rankings of locations with the highest expatriate packages
  • The cost of benefits in Singapore rose by 9% in 2022 in USD terms, driven by higher rental costs
  • The UK retains its status as the location with the highest expatriate packages, with the average pay and benefits package amounting to over USD 440,000.

Singapore - 26 July 2023 - Expatriate salary and benefits packages in Singapore increased by 4% in 2022 in USD terms, pushing the city-state up six places to 16th in the rankings of the costliest places to employ expatriates globally. This was one of the findings of the latest MyExpatriate Market Pay Survey published annually by ECA International, the world's leading provider of knowledge, information, and software for the management and assignment of employees around the world.

When considering the cost of an expatriate package, companies need to factor in three main elements: the cash salary, benefits – such as accommodation, international schools, utilities, or cars – and tax. To assist companies relocating staff with benchmarking their packages against the market, ECA conducts its annual MyExpatriate Market Pay Survey of pay levels for expatriates around the world, including benefits, allowances, salary calculation methods, and tax treatment.

“The surge in the cost of expatriate accommodation in Singapore is being felt by locals and expatriates alike, as reflected in the 9% increase in the cost of benefits in expatriate packages when measured in USD terms,” said Lee Quane, Regional Director - Asia at ECA International. Only the fact that salaries fell by USD 4,000 prevented Singapore from moving up the rankings further.”

“Overall, the total salary and benefits packages for expatriates in Singapore rose by 4% to USD 258,762 in 2022,” added Quane.

Asia Highlights

In contrast to last year, expatriate salaries in most locations in the region have fallen this year, resulting in a drop in the total cost of pay and benefits in more than half of the locations when measured in USD terms. Among the countries experiencing this decline include Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan.

Hong Kong is up three places to become the world’s fifth most expensive expatriate pay and benefits package in the world in 2022, despite a 2% decrease compared to 2021. The total value of a typical expatriate package in Hong Kong is now USD 278,020 with salary and benefits costs falling by USD 2,400 and USD 1,600 respectively.

As was the case last year, Malaysia has the lowest salary and benefits package in the region. Total package costs fell by 4% to USD 164,696, with salary costs down 6%.

China retained its position as the location with the third-highest expatriate packages in the region after Japan and India and ranked fourth globally. However, expatriate salaries in China fell by 5% in USD terms in 2022. Quane explained: “The yuan strengthened against most major currencies compared to 2021, and as many expatriates are paid some or all of their salary in other currencies, this caused the average expat salary in yuan to fall.”

In Japan, the salary and benefits packages for expats remained the second most expensive in the world, with a 5% increase in local currency terms. However, due to the weak Japanese yen, the cost of salary, benefits, and taxes all fell by double-digit percentages drop when measured in USD terms. As a result, the total package is 12% cheaper than last year, costing USD 370,183.

Global Highlights

The UK remains the most expensive location to send expatriates, with the average expatriate salary and benefits package amounting to USD 441,608 in 2022, which is roughly the same cost as last year. Employee benefits increased 4% to USD 167,594 and are the most expensive in the world, with salary accounting for less than a fifth of the total package.

Meanwhile, the strength of the US dollar has pushed the US up seven places in the rankings, and into the global top 10. Despite a slight fall in salaries, the total cost of the package has risen by 6% to USD 272,770.

Quane said: "The strong dollar caused the average expatriate salary in the US to fall, as many expats in the country do not receive all of their salary in US dollars. However, higher housing costs contributed to a 10% increase in the cost of benefits, meaning that companies will have found it more expensive to relocate staff to the US in 2022."


Notes to Editors

The list of countries used in the rankings is based on countries that have cities appearing in the top 40 of The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI). The GFCI has been produced since 2007 by commercial think-tank the Z/Yen Group in order to examine the major financial centres globally in terms of competitiveness. It draws on data from the United Nations, World Bank, and EIU as well as over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire.

About ECA International

ECA International is the market-leading provider of knowledge, information and technology that enables businesses to manage their international reward programmes.

Partnering with thousands of clients on every continent, we provide a fully integrated suite of quality data, specialist software, consultancy and training. Our unparalleled insights guide clients as they mobilise their most valuable resource: people.

We make the complex world of international mobility simple, providing clients with the expertise and support they need to make the right decisions – every time.

ECA International: Mobility solutions for a world that’s constantly moving.

About ECA's MyExpatriate Market Pay Survey

ECA's MyExpatriate Market Pay Survey looks at pay levels for expatriates around the world, including information on benefits, allowances, salary calculation methods and tax treatment.

The results, free to participants, enable companies to benchmark their expatriates' actual salaries against the market. More than 340 companies took part in the survey covering over 140 countries and over 10 000 international assignees.

Figures used in this release were collected in the later stages of 2022 and refer to a Middle Manager position based on 80 ECA Points. ECA Points is a job evaluation system that measures the influence, scope and responsibilities of a job.

There are a number of ways in which salary packages for expatriates may be calculated. The information provided by participant companies in our survey relates to home and host-based salary systems as well as locally-hired and localised expatriates and expatriates on indefinite contracts.

Certain types of allowances are specifically excluded from the analysis in the reports. These are one-off payments such as allowances for outfit, furniture, disturbance and relocation.

Benefits values are based on standard ECA assumptions and have been derived from data in ECA's accommodation and benefits reports to provide an estimate of the cost of providing these benefits. The actual costs or allowances paid to cover these benefits vary widely according to each company's policy.

Tax figures used here refer to employee taxes and do not take company contributions into account. For ease of comparison, it is assumed that cash allowances are paid to employees to cover the cost of any benefits provided.

The accommodation figure is representative of the cost of housing two adults and one child. Utilities covers heat, light, water and telephone charges. Education assumes one child attending a local international school. The car figure covers annual running costs and is based on a standard cars value (2000 cc), depreciated over five years.

For further information, please contact:

Yuhui Ko / Alyssa Pabellano
Rice Communications for ECA International

Jenny Chiang

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